Mapbox矢量切片源码分析

为了了解矢量切片的更多技术细节,轻微挖一挖Mapbox-gl-js的前端结构。比较关键的内容是矢量切片如何在前端如何被定义、加载和绘制,下面结合源码稍微介绍下。

概念

矢量切片规范

Mapbox矢量切片规范定义的内容:文件格式(后缀名、MIME)、投影和范围、内部结构(图层、要素、几何图形编码、要素属性)。切片文件里不在是地理坐标(例如经度和纬度),而是屏幕坐标,也并不包含任何地理信息。在切片文件里,原点坐标是左上角,x轴向右递增,y轴向下递增。

绘制

Mapbox-gl-js使用客户端绘制,这是vector tiles在前端最核心的部分,也因为此,在前端运行时修改地图样式变得轻而易举。大多数地图前端SDK或api(如arcgis、openlayers、leaflet),决定mapview的通常就是center point + zoom level(或 center point + extent),在矢量绘制情况下,zoom level可以是任意的,包括小数(例如6.5),应该基本上算是无极缩放了。除此之外,还有两个很重要的参数:
1. bearing:地图旋转参数,单位是度数。
2. pitch:地图倾斜角度(3d才cool嘛)。

在图层方面,Mapbox gl中定义了渲染数据的方式,这些数据即可以是栅格,也可以是矢量。但由于前端渲染,所以实际上底图和专题图在技术实现上,并没有实质的区别。这样的好处是,所有的要素都可以如同arcgis下的GraphicLayer,或者Javascript中的div一般可拥有较可控的交互能力。

camera和Map

Mapboxgl.camera控制目标位置的中心点位置、缩放级别、旋转角度和倾斜角度。Mapboxgl.Map对象是提供开发接口的最基本对象,继承自camera,并在初始化的时候通过container的设置(HTML元素)来告知Mapboxgl渲染出对应的Map对象。

下面是加载一个mapboxgl地图的例子:

style、source和layer

无所不包的style

也许因为可视化是第一要务,所以Mapbox定义了style这么个概念,也是一切配置的总结点,也是通过JSON对象来进行配置,并需要遵守Mapbox样式规范,或者通过URL来获取这个JSON。

典型的style节点结构如下:

Mapbox构造自己的生态,所以若直接使用Mapbox的数据,即从它的API获取style,可以直接:

毕竟,Mapbox需要的就是用什么数据,绘成什么样子。当然,目前这并不是我们关注的重点。从包含内容来说,style包含很多内容,比较重要的例如version、center、zoom、bearing、pitch、light、sources、layers等。而这其中,sources和layers又最为重要。可以这样说,style是所有信息的总入口,里边可以定义地图的各种绘制信息和参数,最重要的是可以定义数据源(矢量、栅格、视频、图像等),而layers则定义了最终需要渲染的内容,这是一个逻辑上的“图层”,这个“图层”会定义与绘制相关的具体细节,以及要引用哪些sources。Vector Tile能够在前端任意改变样式,重组数据,都是基于这样的style->sources->layers结构。

下面看下sources部分的源代码,layers部分暂时不予讨论,比较明确,可以直接参看:mapbox-gl-style-spec#layers

sources(数据源)

通过定义矢量切片数据源,让api知晓瓦片来自何处,对于mapbox的sample普通用户,底图数据来自mapbox的服务器,因此对于底图来说,往往只定义style就可以了。此外,需要注意的是,添加source并不能直接直接在前端显示数据,具体的layers中对图层的定义,才是与可视化渲染相关。看一下mapbox-gl-js的源码,source type主要有这么几种:

source的作用,就是通过参数选项来创建一个切片数据源的实例。每个数据源,都必须有唯一id,用于标识数据源。除此之外的内容,可以来看下最主要的三类数据源的构造函数

VectorTile数据源

vector tile的tilesize必须是512,默认定义了0-22的zoom level,另外,最主要的两个参数是url和tiles。url指向一个TileJSON的地址,支持三中协议:http,https,mapbox。而tiles是一个数组,指向多个TileJSON。对于TileJSON的描述如下:

TileJSON is a format for describing tilesets. It keeps track of where to request the tileset, the name of the tileset, and any attribution that’s necessary when using the tileset.

geojson数据源

例如下面的示例通过data指向一个网络url(M1.0+地震数据) ,并创建一个heatmap。当然,实际使用中,data也可以直接是语义正确的geojson对象。

渲染结果如下:

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    for WomenTechnologically advanced materials
    help provide outstanding performance aand all day comfortHydrologix & CoolMax technology provide advanced moisture management, to
    move perspiration quicmly away from yolur feet allowing the moisture to
    evaporate faster and ensuring that your fewet stay dry and freshPlantar Relief Bridge Provides optimum support tto the arch3/4 length design helps shoes fit
    into most types of footwearPolymer gel in the heel provides cushioning
    and shock absorption to fufther protect the footThe dense foam oof the body of the insole provides shock absorption and protectionWho Can Benefit From Wearing The Soff Sole Plantar Fasciitis Orthotic Insoles?Anyone who is sufffering from Plantar Fasciitis, hel spurs
    or other type of hel pain could benefit from wearing these
    insoles. They are ideal for sports shoes and everyday shoes and should
    fit into most types of footwear. The Sof Sole Plantar Fasciitis Insoles can help with a
    number of common foot complaints such as Plantar Fasciitis, heel pain, heel spurs,
    arch pain and foot fatigue.What makes Sof Sole Insoles
    unique?Whatever your activity the technologically advanced designs and materials of Sof
    Sole insoles will optimise the functionality, comort and feel of athletic
    annd casual shoes.Whether you’re a serious athlete or are simply
    on your feeet all day, Sof Sole insoles are the perfect solution to improve
    the comfort and performance of your footwear. They will help
    to extend tthe life of your shoes and redeuce the impact you feel
    while walking, running, or standing for long periods of
    time.It is easily see that men’s and women’s feet have a different shape and structure (morphology).
    Soff Soole insooles are specifically designed to provide the perfect fit for
    both Men and Women. Unlike some other brands, Sof Sole insoles have a
    truly gender specific design, differing inn thee insole
    thickness, width and drpth of heel cup to provide unrivalled comfort.Sizing of the Sof Sole Plantar Fasciitis InsolesThese insoles
    come in a universal size andd should fit most – forr specific measurements, please seee the table below.
    They also come in a men’s version.Length (at longes point) Width (at widest point)204mm 81mmHow to Clean thhe Sof Sole InsolesTo clean the Sof Sole Insoles simply hand wash in warm
    water and mild detergent. Do not machine wash or
    tumble dry. Leave to aiir dry coimpletely before placing back
    in your shoes.

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